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奥林国际英语

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【转载】高中高考英语语法:省略句  

2015-05-24 11:09:57|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1. 省略句的定义
    省略是为了避免重复、突出新信息并使上下文紧密连接的一种语法修辞手段。省略在语言中,尤其在对话中,是一种十分普遍的现象。
2. 小品词的省略
(1)省略介词
He spent four hours (in) going over his lessons. 他花了四个小时复习功课。
I’ve studied Eng1ish (for) five years.我已学五年英语了。
(2)省略连词that
I believe (that) you will succeed.  我相信你们会成功的。
It’s a pity (that) he’s leaving. 他要走,真遗憾。
I’m sure (that) she will help you. 我肯定她会帮你的。
(3)省略关系代词
I’ll give you all (that) I have. 我要把我所有的一切都给你。
He read the book (which) I got yesterday. 他看过我昨天买的书了。
3. 句子成分的省略
(1)省略主语
Beg your pardon. (我)请你原谅。(Beg前省略了主语I)
Take care! 当心!(Take前省略了主语you)
Looks as if it will rain. 看起来象要下雨。(Looks前省略了主语it)
(2)省略谓语
Who next? 该谁了?(Who后面省略了谓语comes)
The river was deep and the ice thin. (ice后面省略了was)
We’ll do the best we can. 我们将尽力而为。(can后面省略了动词do)
(3)省略表语
Are you ready?  Yes, I am. 你准备好了吗? 我准备好了。(am后面省略了ready)
He was a lover of sports as he had been in his youth. 他还是象年轻时那样,是一位运动爱好者。(had been后面省略了a lover of sports)
(4)省略宾语
Let’s do the dishes. I’ll wash and you’ll dry. 让我们洗碗吧,我来洗,你来揩干。(wash和dry后面省略了宾语dishes)
(5)省略定语
He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved. 那钱他花了部分,其余的他都存了起来。(the rest后面省略了定语of the money)
(6)省略状语
He was not hurt. Strange! 他没有受伤,真奇怪!(Strange前面省略了状语how)
1. 省略句可同时省掉句子几个成份
What exciting news! (= What exciting news it is!) 多么令人激动的消息啊!
Pity he’s failed. (= It is a pity that he’s failed.) 很遗憾,他失败了。
I like him more than her. (= I like him more than I like her.) 我喜欢他更甚于喜欢她。
2. 英语中有一些固定的省略结构:
a) 在以if, when, though, as if(好象)等连词引导的从句中,如从句中的主要动词是be ,常将主语和动词be 省略。
If necessary, we shall send a telegram home. 如有必要,我们就往家里打电报。
Whenever possible, he will come to my help. 他一有可能就来帮助我。
While cycling, don’t forget the traffic lights. 骑车时,不要忘记看红绿灯。
b) 由固定词组引导的疑问句:
What about having a game of chess? 下盘棋怎么样?
How come they left you alone here? 他们怎么会把你一人留在这里呢?
What if it’s raining? 如果天下雨怎么办?
Why not try again? 为什么不再试试呢?
c) 在口语中,为了避免重复,不定式可以省去和句子前部重复的动词原形而只留下不定式符号to。
He may leave if he wishes to. 他可以走,如果他愿意的话。
Don’t go till I tell you to. 等我叫你走你再走。
3. 被省略的部分一般可以在句子中补上,但有时省略结构已经定型,如果把省略部分补上,反而不合乎习惯。
He is taller than I am. 他比我高。(am之后省略tall,补上不合习惯)
No parking. 禁止停车。(告示用语 = No parking is allowed here.)
有一些习惯表达很难补上所省略的部分:
Not at all. 不用谢。
No matter. 不要紧。
Thanks. 谢谢。
I. 改写句子 使用省略手段避免下面各句重复与冗赘:
1. Someone has used my mobile phone, but I don't know who has used it.
2. John worked hard but his brother did not work hard.
3. I have lazy students and hardworking students in my class.
4. --- Has he ever been abroad?
  --- No, he has never been abroad.
5. If it is necessary, we will finish it ahead of time.
6. You must not be late and you must not be absent.
7. Give me your name and address, please.
8. It is well done.
9. Mother can take a rest, Mother should take a rest but Mother won't take a rest after long hours of work.
10.He could answer the questions very well if he would answer the questions but he didn't answer the questions.
II. 单项选择         从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案:
1. --- I won't do it any more.     --- ________?
       A. Why don't            B. Why don't do it any more
       C. Why not              D. Why not to
2. Although ________ to stop, he kept on working.
       A. tell               B. telling                C. having told            D. told
3. --- Will you waste your time and money on that?  --- Certainly ________.
       A. I not        B. don't      C. not          D. no
4. --- Mary didn't attend the lecture, did she?   --- Yes, she ________.
       A. attended         B. didn't attend        C. didn't          D. did
5. --- What's Joan doing?
   ---_________ newspapers in the room.
       A. She reading            B. She reads
       C. To read                D. Reading
6. _________ always succeed.
       A. Honest and clever students       B. Students who honest and clever
       C. Honest students and clever       D. Students are honest and clever
7. --- Can you climb that tree, my boy?   --- __________ ?
       A. I          B. Myself      C. Mine        D. Me
8. Some people are against the plan but _______ support it.
       A. any more        B. many more        C. much more       D. no more
9. --- I'll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat?
  --- Not at all. _________.
       A. I've no time      B. I'd rather not    C. I'd like to        D. I'd be happy to
10. --- Why not go and have dinner in a restaurant? --- _________. It's too expensive.
       A. Why not        B. I agree       C. I'm afraid not       D. I'm sure
答案:
CDCDD  ADBDC

 
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